Africa has become a byword for poverty and conflict and the graveyard for well-meaning development projects. But it's also known for its spectacular and diverse animal and plant life. This great “living” resource is vanishing just as rapidly as Africa's human cargo of desperately poor people is increasing. On this continent, poverty threatens nature every bit as much as wealth. In this Earth Report we visit two hot spots for wildlife diversity – the Republic of Congo and Kenya – to find out why this natural wealth is being destroyed. But we also see how even the most disadvantaged communities can develop the means to make wildlife pay its way.