Cities were created as a result of trade developments. Housing, clean water, sanitation and transportation are all crucial to a functional city. Nowadays, the advantages of urban living are offset by high numbers of people living in a relatively small area. Pollution and poor sanitation are just two areas of concern. We review the effects of pollution on some of the world’s most recognizable landmarks as well as the effort undertaken by government (such as a “congestion tax” in London) to combat urban-living issues.