Addressing Our Scapular Stabilizers

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Developing Our Scapular Stabilizers to Prevent Shoulder Injury.

What constitutes a shoulder joint that is prone to injury? Could it be weak rotator cuff musculature? Maybe it is joint laxity and instability? What about capsular restrictions or the work we do on a regular basis? Or, is it possible that weak scapular stabilizers could play a role in shoulder injury?

The answer is, all of the above reasons could contribute as the cause of a shoulder injury. Although shoulder injuries are often complex, many do happen to be related to one common problem: weak muscles that support the shoulder blades, otherwise known as scapular stabilizers.

The scapula (shoulder blade) is a very involved structure of the body. Not only does this bone articulate with the humerus (upper arm bone) and clavicle (collar bone), it is also the attachment site for many muscles in the shoulder itself, as well as the back, the chest, the arm, and even the neck. It is therefore easy to comprehend how a weakness in this area could affect many others in the body.

The muscles that attach on the medial (inside) aspect of the scapula are the key muscles for scapular stabilization. These include the middle trapezius and lower trapezius, rhomboid major, and rhomboid minor, and serratus anterior. The middle trapezius and rhomboid muscles function to retract the scapula. Scapular retraction is the action of squeezing your shoulder blades together. The lower trapezius takes care of scapular depression which is drawing the scapula down the thorax. The task of serratus anterior is to hold the scapula’s medial border tight to the thorax.

Many of these weaknesses are actually observable. When the lower trapezius muscle is weak, a flaring of the lower scapula exists. When the serratus anterior is weak, the medial border of the scapula flares. Weakness of the middle trapezius and rhomboid muscles contributes to a separation of the scapulae, also known as protraction.

It is therefore the job of these muscles to hold the scapulae tight to the thorax. If the scapulae are not held firmly by strong muscles, they are left free to flare and flop with arm movements. Without stability at the scapula, how is it possible for the glenohumeral joint (shoulder joint) to remain stable? It isn’t.

Scapular instability leaves the glenohumeral joint (GH joint) at risk of injury as the GH joint requires both strength and endurance of scapular stabilizers for it to be protected. The stability of the GH joint cannot come from the humerus since the arm does not have anything to stabilize from; it has no anchors. However, the scapula attaches to the axial skeleton of the body (a fantastic anchor) and therefore can generate stability from the thorax. Strong scapular stabilizers have been proven to defend the GH joint from injury.

Once these weaknesses are identified via observation of functional movements and muscle testing, exercises must be incorporated into one’s daily schedule in order to prevent or rehabilitate shoulder injuries. Many of the exercises used to target such muscles are very intricate in their movement patterns and look fairly easy. Often, the first time patients see these exercises performed, they expect them to feel simple. However, as soon as they attempt one repetition themselves, they recognize how weak their stabilizers actually are and appreciate the need for such training.

Typical yoga posture focuses heavily on scapular retraction and depression. Yoga brings these movements into everyday life. If you meet a yogi, their scapulae will be retracted and depressed. Their shoulders will not be around their ears like the rest of the population who carry their tension in their upper trapezius muscles and levator scapulae. Simply applying these two movements to your daily activities will prove beneficial. However, to truly protect the GH joint from injury, more intensive exercise is required.

Yoga, single-handedly, can not target each of the scapular stabilizers appropriately, unless modifications are made to poses or practices. For example, by the addition of scapular protraction to plank pose, the serratus anterior muscle could be optimally targeted. Many of the movements designed to pursue the scapular stabilizers are very specific. Feedback from a health care professional or yoga instructor is ideal when attempting to understand these movements.

Bring attention to these muscles in your back. The benefits you will gain from strengthening these muscles are plentiful. Whether you are a parent who is constantly picking up children, a housewife who places the dishes in the top cupboard, or an athlete who is involved in sports with overhead movements such as tennis, volleyball, or climbing, scapular stabilization is essential in preventing shoulder injuries.



Passive Stretch to Open the Hips

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Open hips are a kind of holy grail in the world of yoga. If your hips are tight some of the most basic movement in yoga will be an eternal challenge. Lotus and half lotus posture is almost taken for granted in traditional yoga practices. Not every student of yoga has naturally open hips.

Those that are born tight suffer and strive to open their hips. If you rush the process of opening the hips the weaker joints nearby, most often the knees, take the brunt of the pressure and can often end of up injured.

While it’s easy to push hard and over-exert yourself in any activity it’s harder to find the perfect balance between activation and release that will create health and healing in the body. If you have tight hips and you want them to open your mission is not to open your hips but to find that healing balance.

If you practice a traditionally active style of yoga like Ashtanga Yoga and your hips are tight then it can be very useful to supplement your daily practice with some additional passive stretching. There are many stretches that can help target your hips, but this one will prepare your body especially well for lotus and half lotus position.

Called double pigeon, you want to go into this movement with a relaxed, almost meditative mind. Do not seek to strive or force anything. Bend both knees about half way and stack the right leg on top of the left so that the right foot is on top of the left knee and the left foot is underneath the right knee. If it’s uncomfortable to sit here then just stay in position.

If you are comfortable fold forward and relax all unnecessary effort. Breath freely and effortlessly. Surrender your body into the floor and place your mind on the inner body. See if you can feel the external rotation of your hip joints. Place your mind deep within the pelvis and be sure not to fight or struggle with yourself. Just be exactly where you are. Hold the first side for between one and give minutes. Then switch sides.

Adding a passive stretch like this to your daily yoga practice can help relax the mind and body and balance what may be a sometimes overly aggressive attempt to force the body to open. If you do try this posture the calm, meditative mind is perhaps the most beneficial aspect of the movement.

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