Where is the Garden of Eden?

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The Garden of Eden is a central theme in the Old Testament: a gorgeous utopia where everything is beautiful and perfect, untouched by the sins of man. It all sounds too perfect, doesn’t it?

This concept of an idyllic, pristine paradise isn’t exclusive to Christianity. The Sumerians called it “Dilmun,” while the Greeks referred to it as the “Garden of the Hesperides.”

There are more than just a few details about the garden that overlap between cultures, which leaves room for speculation and exploration. Is this paradise a mere myth, or did it actually exist? If it did exist, where was it located?

The Search for the Garden of Eden

Scientists, philosophers, and laypeople have spent centuries searching for the elusive Garden of Eden location. While we still don’t know exactly where it was — or if it even existed — it offers interesting theories to explore.

In Genesis 2:8-14, the garden is described as being near the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. Based on this information, we can safely assume the Garden of Eden was located somewhere in the Middle East — specifically in an area known as the Fertile Crescent, which included Mesopotamia.

Because the Bible describes the garden as bountiful, its correlation to the Fertile Crescent makes sense. This region was very uncharacteristic of the surrounding desert, with moist soil and abundant water. It eventually became an epicenter for agriculture.

However, this same Bible verse mentions two other mysterious rivers: the Pison and the Gihon. These rivers may or may not exist today, and scholars have struggled throughout the ages to determine their locations.

Many Ethiopians believe the Gihon is the modern-day Blue Nile, one of the major tributaries of the Nile, although this has never been proven. Similarly, the location of the Pison (also stylized as the “Pishon”) remains unknown, though some believe it to be the modern-day Ganges, and others believe it to be the Nile.

Other Stories of the Garden of Eden

In addition to Christians, there are other groups of people who have their own stories of a similarly idyllic paradise.

Eastern Traditions

Shambhala is a utopian kingdom that is a focal point of the Tibetan Hindu and Buddhist movements. It’s a place where people coexisted together in harmony and enlightenment.

Unlike the Garden of Eden, Shambhala seems to be centered moreso around an idea rather than a physical place. In Eastern religions, the core concepts of Shambhala — harmony, enlightenment, and wisdom — can be achieved virtually anywhere, at any time, through mindfulness and meditation.

Sumerians

In the Epic of Gilgamesh, the utopian garden is referred to as the “garden of the gods” and is located near the Euphrates and Tigris rivers. The epic describes a “plant of life,” which parallels the Tree of Life in the book of Genesis and allegedly provides eternal life.

When Gilgamesh learns of the plant’s power to provide everlasting youth, he attempts to take it. However, a serpent thwarts his efforts and steals the plant from Gilgamesh while he is camping. It is then that Gilgamesh understands his mortality and accepts that he cannot live forever.

Greeks

Ancient Greek folklore refers to the garden as the “Garden of the Hesperides.” Similar to the Biblical tale, this garden is associated with a fruit-bearing tree and a serpent.

According to Greek mythology, the Garden of Hesperides is located “at the northern edge of the world.” Its name comes from the nymphs who resided there (the Hesperides), who were daughters of a god called Atlas. The Hesperides, along with a serpent named Ladon, guarded the tree and its forbidden fruit, which belonged to Zeus.

Garden of Eden: Fact or Fiction?

There are some clear parallels between these legends and those that appear in the Bible. Is this merely a coincidence? Or, is it possible such a utopian place existed? While the mystery of the Garden of Eden prevails, so too does the quest for truth.

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Decoding the Actual Age of the Great Sphinx

Posing as a sentinel on the Giza plateau is the weathered and colossal figure that stands 66 feet above the desert sand, the Great Sphinx, a limestone sculpture with the head of a lion and the body of a human. While we now know much about the history and mythology of the ancient Egyptians, the mystery of the Sphinx has yet to be truly unraveled. 

An ongoing battle between mainstream Egyptologists and a more recent wave of independent thinkers debates the age of the Sphinx by thousands of years. The latter insists the imposing limestone statue is much older than mainstream archaeologists, and Egyptologists claim it to be.

Mainstream archaeologists determined the Sphinx to have been built between 2558 and 2532 BCE. But in 1992, John Anthony West rocked the scientific community with his claim that the Sphinx was actually carved 10,000 years earlier before Egypt was a desert. West and others argued that academia had overlooked an important detail—the body of the sculpture bore distinct markings of water erosion. 

After his assessment of the Sphinx’s age, West found fellow scientists who shared his observation about uncovering an entirely different history than was commonly accepted. West’s search led him to Robert Schoch, a geology professor at Boston University, willing to pursue an open-minded, out-of-the-box investigation into the origins not only of the Sphinx but the entire region, as well as its implications for the origin of the human species.  

In Gaia’s original series, Ancient Civilizations, Schoch explains his first encounter with the figure in 1990, at which time he immediately noticed there was a disconnect between the statue’s academically accepted date of origin and the truth staring him in the face. Upon careful inspection, Schoch realized the Sphinx survived intensely wet weather conditions that stand in stark contrast to the now hyper-arid conditions of the Sahara Desert. 

Schoch concluded that academia had determined the Sphinx’s age by overlooking signs of erosion due to heavy rainfall. The deluge that eroded the Sphinx was uncommon to the Egyptian plateau 5,000 years ago, but very common 10,000 to 12,000 years ago. For Schoch, this was an exciting find, but for mainstream science, it was met with derision and denial.

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