Reducing Shoulder Impingement
Many Yoga poses and flows involve large movements at the shoulder joint. Some of these movements have the potential to create shoulder impingement when improper technique and movements line are applied. If this shoulder impingement continues over time, chronic injury can form leading to pain and dysfunction.
What is Shoulder Impingement?
Shoulder impingement is caused when the arm is lifted above the line of the shoulder. The head of the arm bone (humerus) lifts and rotates into a portion of the shoulder blade (acromion on the scapula). Covering the head of the arm bone are the 4 rotator cuff muscles: the supraspinatus, the infraspinatus, the subscapularis, and the teres minor. Acting as cushioning against pressure and friction, there are bursa sacs that lie between the muscular capsule and the acromion.
When the arm is lifted high over the level of the shoulder, the head of the humerus presses into the acromion. This pressure and friction can develop into inflammation of the bursa (bursitis) or the tendons the muscles (tendonitis). This inflammation can worsen due to repeated impinging actions that can eventually lead to increased pain and limited movement.
Where can Shoulder Impingement Occur in a Yoga Practice?
Shoulder impingement can occur in variety of Yoga postures and flows. Here is list of common yoga postures that set the arm bone above the line of the shoulder and can generate damaging frictional forces in the shoulder joint if one is not mindful:
- Sun Salutations – the motion of folding into Mountain Pose (Tadasana) into Standing Forward Bend (Uttanasana) often incorporates a large sweeping motion of the arms over the head.
- Extended Side Angle Pose (Parsvottanasana)
- Extended arms in Child’s Pose (Balasana)
- Half Moon Side Stretch Pose (Ardha Chandrasana)
- Gate Pose (Parighasana)
How to Reduce the Incidence of Shoulder Impingement in Yoga Poses
The first method in reducing the pressure caused by shoulder impingement is to eliminate arms transitions that move the arm bone through large sweeping motions. In Sun Salutations, consider keeping arms in the forward plane, instead of lifting arms out to the side, back, up and then over head. By lifting the arms forward instead, there is less pressure being created against the head of the humerus as the arm bone moves back and up.
The greatest amount of pressure tends to occur where the arm is situated high above the shoulder line with the arm bone back in line with the neck and the arm bone rotated internally (medially) so the palm faces forward.
If the yoga posture requires the arm to be overhead and in line with the neck (like Extended Side Angle Pose), take extra note of the position of the hand. The hand should be turned inwards towards the body creating an external rotation of the arm bone. This external rotation has a tendency to draw the head of the humerus down from the acromion and scapular structures. This outward rotation of the arm bone offers secondary benefits as it encourages the shoulder blades to draw down away from the ears, thus bringing more integrity to the shoulder girdle and freedom to the trapezius and neck regions.
If you are ever experiencing regular pain in the shoulders, consult a health care professional to have your condition properly diagnosed and treated. Continue to acknowledge that Yoga poses are a means to create expansion and vitality. With mindful alignment and awareness to joint positioning, you can maintain space and energy flow through the shoulders and readily avoid impinging movements.
Yoga and Lymphatic Circulation
According to Live Science, “the lymphatic system is a network of tissues and organs that help rid the body of toxins, waste and other unwanted materials,” including a fluid that contains white blood cells that help fight infections. You are probably most familiar with the lymph nodes in the lymphatic system, but the lymphatic system travels through your body from your tonsils and adenoids to your spleen. There are lymph nodes located around vital organs like your heart and lungs and in your armpit and near your groin area.
This internal system produces the antibodies necessary to kill bad actors in your body and prevent an infection in one part of your body from spreading to another. If your lymphatic system stops working, fluids begin to build up in your body and several different conditions can occur, including infections, swollen glands, blockages, autoimmune disorders, certain types of cancer, and lymphedema. Since the lymphatic system travels through so many parts of your body, it is crucial that we keep it healthy.
Yoga and Lymphatic Circulation
As you may know, yoga is one of the best practices for strengthening the body and reducing stress. What you might not realize is the role yoga plays in increasing circulation throughout the body. Increasing circulation helps allow the lymphatic system to transport good stuff and filter out the bad, which means that any amount or type of yoga will improve your lymphatic system.
Think of the lymphatic system as a super highway that filters toxins and circulates antibodies throughout your body. This system is critical to getting you better when you are sick. Moreover, unlike the way blood travels through the body, the heart does not control the pumping of the lymphatic system. Instead, the system moves by muscular contractions. Even more reason to strengthen your muscles.
One aspect of yoga that has dramatic effects on the lymphatic system is pranayama. Pranayama is the practice of deep, controlled breathing. By practicing these deep breaths, you are able to better circulate good fluids throughout your body and remove bad toxins.
Routine Maintenance of the Lymphatic System
Yoga poses that invert the legs and allow gravity to act on the lymphatic channels are particularly helpful to keeping the system flowing and functioning optimally. In addition to these type of poses, any dynamic postures that build heat and keep the body moving are also beneficial. For these yoga postures to be the most productive, focus more on your breath than perfecting the postures. Below are some sample poses to get you started:
Downward Facing Dog Adho Mukha Svanasana
A classic pose, but did you know that it builds strength throughout the body and improves the functioning of your immune system? To attempt this pose, firmly plant your feet at the bottom of your mat, then place your hands at the top of your mat so that your body forms an upside V. If you are already under-the-weather when you try this, have a block nearby to rest your head.
Cat-Cow – Bitilasana
By far my favorite yoga pose, Cat-Cow gets everything flowing with only moderate effort. First, go into Tabletop pose (your hands and knees firmly planted on your mat, with your toes pointed behind you). Now arch your back like a cat, letting your gaze fall to the floor in between your outstretched hands. Next, curve your spine the other way your body forms a U the other way. Your head should face towards the ceiling. Do this at least two dozen times, then rest in Child’s Pose to finish.
Sun Salutations are a great way to build strength and increase circulation throughout the body.
Standing Forward Bend – Uttanasana
Gather two blocks before planting your feet firmly on the back of your mat. Spread your feet a little wider than hip-widths apart and then rest your head on top of the bricks. Stay here for several deep breaths.
Other Practices to Improve Lymphatic System
- Water, water and more water. Drinking plenty of fluids is far and away the best method for improving and maintaining all of the systems in your body.
- Go for a brisk walk. Keep your arms and legs moving and walk faster than normal. This will jumpstart your lymphatic system and get all the good stuff flowing.
- In addition to the restorative yoga and low-intensity positions, there are other types of yoga for when you are sick, including Yin Yoga specially tailored to the winter cold and flu season.
Poses for a Weak Lymphatic System
I’ll be honest, I am the worst when I’m sick. Rarely do I feel like anything more than sitting on the sofa and watching reruns, much less partaking in a full yoga session. But, if you are able to get yourself up and moving, there are some low-intensity postures that can help a cold run its course faster so you can get back to feeling like yourself again.
A cold or allergies means that your lymphatic system is blocked. In addition to whatever your doctor recommends, include these chest-opening yoga postures into your get-well-soon regime.
Start by dimming the lights in the room and have extra blankets and blocks nearby, as the last thing you want to do is over-exert yourself. Feel free to turn any of these poses into supported poses. These postures should be done more like restorative yoga.
Bridge Pose is a great chest opener, but if you are feeling under-the-weather try the Supported Bridge Pose – Setu Bandha Sarvangasana – it is much easier on achy joints. Lie down on your mat with your palms down. Bending your knees, pull your heels towards your fingertips. Then push down with your hands to lift your hips up, while you slide a brick lengthwise under your torso. Lastly, pull your shoulder blades in towards each other as much as possible. You should feel your chest opening. Close your eyes and relax while gravity does the work for you.
Bow Pose – Dhanurasana
Traditionally best for strengthening your abdomen, but also stimulates your thymus gland and rejuvenates the parts of the lymphatic system closest to your chest. Try this pose when you have a lot of post-nasal drip flowing into your chest. Begin face-down on your mat – extra blankets are suggested for this one. Separate your legs on the mat about hips-width. Take several deep breaths. Then, as your release your breath, grab hold of your ankles so that your body is shaped like an archer’s bow. Continue to lift your thighs off the mat until you exhale and lower yourself back down to the mat. Repeat two to three times.
Cobra Pose – Bhujangasana
Often part of Sun Salutations, Cobra Pose is another ideal chest opener. Lie face-down on your mat and take several deep breaths. Place your hands, fingers spread wide, on the mat under your shoulders. Press your body into your mat and as you inhale, begin to straighten your arms. You will rise off the mat, except your hands and the tops of your feet. Keep your body tightened. Bend your head back slightly so your gaze moves from in front of you towards the ceiling. Hold this for your full breath, then come back to your mat and exhale. Repeat for a minute.
Extended Triangle Pose – Utthita Trikonasana (as pictured above)
Spread your legs wide so you take up the entire mat lengthwise. Your left foot should be pointed towards the front of the room; your back or right foot turned perpendicular to your front foot. Keep your abdomen tucked in. Put your left hand on your left ankle and hold on. Then, twist your right arm towards the ceiling and hold for three deep breaths. Now switch arms and hold for another three breaths.
Legs Up the Wall – Viparita Karani
Last, but not least, this pose lets gravity do the work so you can relax. Move your mat up against the wall at place a blanket or two on top. Lie on top of the blankets with your bottom against the wall and your legs going up the wall. You should form an “L.” Stretch out your arms so your torso and arms form a “T.” Then, close your eyes and lie there for at least fifteen minutes. I don’t know about you, but – sick or not sick – I could do this one all day!