What Does It Mean To Be A Witch?
What Does It Actually Mean To Be A Witch?
By: Laurie Rihiimaki | Feb. 11, 2019
The term, ‘witch’ gets thrown around in everyday life soaked with a long history of negative connotation.‘Witch’ derives from the Old English noun, ‘wicca’ meaning a male witch and ‘wice’ meaning a female witch or sorceress. However, this negative stigma has recently been viewed as outdated and tired. So, what does it mean to be a witch?
Definition of A Witch
In general, witches today can be defined in three ways: someone who actively practices magical rituals or spells, someone who has a spiritual connection such as a psychic medium or a tarot reader, or someone who worships the Pagan gods.
The reality of what it means to be a witch today carries many traditions of the Pagan religion; something which was previously thought to be tied to the devil or satanic rituals. Modern day witchcraft often includes the lighting of candles, meditation, yoga, incense, the smudging of sage, crystals, dream analysis, and other rituals connected to Pagan roots.
However, witchcraft is simply about using the power of the universe and the mind to attract wants and desires. It’s about being in tune with Earth’s natural resources and using them to mystically quench a spiritual thirst.
How to Spot A Witch
Spotting a witch today compared to the 1600s is an entirely different puzzle. Nowadays, it’s rather easy to determine who’s a witch because they are generally proud of their mystical practice. We now know you can’t simply label someone a witch based on their physical appearance or outspokenness.
But, in the late-1500s to mid-1600s in Eastern Europe and early colonial America, witches were named purely based on societal suspicion. For example, if a woman was outspoken, she was a witch. If she owned land or had a great deal of assets, she was a witch. If a woman was widowed or a spinster, she was considered out of the ordinary, therefore, she was deemed a witch.
After the label ‘witch’ was plastered on a woman in the community, there were many ways to theoretically prove her connection to the feared and mysterious craft. One of these tests included the bizarre witch cake; a rye flour cake baked with the urine of the accused, which was then fed to a local dog that the community observed to determine if it showed the same behaviors as the ‘witch.’ People believed the urine would transmit satanic juices to the dog because of its supposed association with the devil.
There were many other devised strategies to determine the presence of a witch in the community including:
- Weighing the accused against a stack of bibles
- Asking them to recite the Lord’s prayer
- Counting the number of pets they had
- Counting the number of marriages they had
- Asking them if they had dreams that included Native Americans or their culture
- Observing if they talk to themselves
These tests and many others determined a community member’s right to continuing living.
The accused was also searched for the physical mark of a witch, including birthmarks, scars, or extra nipples. These mysterious physical marks, which we now discern as common biological features, were considered signs of the devil’s presence. The accused were pricked with knives on these marks; if the mark did not bleed, they were deemed a witch.
The Destigmatization of Witches
Witchcraft is not as highly feared as it once was. There are no widespread witch hunts or constant fear associated with the neighborhood spinsters and widows. The destigmatization of witches is seen more and more in our everyday lives as popular stores sell tarot cards and crystals. While smudging with sage and owning a spell book is a trending lifestyle add-on visible all over Instagram.
While this destigmatization of witches may seem trendy on the surface, as it’s popularly marketed, the spread of witch-awareness is closely related to a greater cause: the women’s empowerment movement rapidly spreading across the world.
Today, people recognize the need for a change in energy relating to the female’s place in society, but often women are feared for being strong-willed and outspoken. Then, like now, powerful women or those with important titles often face greater challenges than their male counterparts. In the 1600s they were burned at the stake or stoned to death; today, they can face belittlement of their accomplishments, their morality questioned, or reputations intentionally tarnished.
With that being said, one could argue that witchcraft is a necessary addition to modern society as it illuminates the daily struggles of women on various levels. With that feminist insight in mind, it’s vital to remember that witchcraft is not just one single thing across the board. It’s certainly not just the performance of spell casting or the donning of crystals. It’s an understanding of one’s own spirituality. And, at this period in time, which is faced with drastically polarizing viewpoints, it is essential to have beliefs that we can mold to our own specific needs.
Has A.I. Finally Decoded Bizarre 600-Year-Old Voynich Manuscript?
An esoteric text, discovered over a century ago has left cryptographers and linguists puzzled for decades, but now artificial intelligence may finally decipher the enigmatic content of the Voynich Manuscript.
Carbon dating shows that this esoteric text was written sometime in the 15th century by an unknown author. Its modern provenance has been attributed to an Italian antique book collector, Wilfred Voynich, whom it was named after.
The manuscript contains writings on calfskin parchment that look like a cross between ancient Celtic and some amalgam of middle eastern text. It is thought to be encrypted using a series of cyphers, including anagrams, micrographic shorthand, and abbreviations.
Since its discovery was publicized in 1912, cryptographers and even WWII codebreakers have tried to decipher its contents to no avail, leading many to label it a hoax or simply full of gibberish. In addition to the bizarre inscriptions, the manuscript contain a number of strange illustrations that have led some to believe it to be either alchemical instructions or a book of medicine.
But now, Greg Kondrak, an expert in natural language processing at the University of Alberta, is using artificial intelligence to solve this age-old mystery. The computer algorithm used to translate the text implements information from the “Universal Declaration of Human Rights” which contains over 400 different languages.
Their first discovery: the script is an encoded version of Hebrew.
They believe that one of the cyphers may be anagrams alphabetically ordered, showing 80 percent of the words decoded this way as Hebrew. Kondrak and his team have also deciphered a near grammatically correct first sentence that reads:
“She made recommendations to the priest, man of the house and me and people.”
The rest of the script remains somewhat encrypted with incongruent words and phrases that have yet to be untangled. Kondrak’s next goal is to bring in someone with more knowledge of ancient Hebrew and its possible ambiguities, as he’s currently been relying on Google translate.