Who Was the Sumerian God Enki?

Who Was the Sumerian God Enki?

The Sumerians were noted for their worship of many gods. Among them was Enki, a god known for being the patron deity of the city of Eridu.

Enki is depicted in many pieces of Sumerian art and literature, including the Babylonian creation epic the Enuma Elish, The Epic of Gilgamesh, and others. Due to his prominence in such works, it is fair to assume he played a large role in Sumerian culture. Much about Enki remains shrouded in mystery, and begs further exploration.

The God Enki

Enki, a god known for his inherent worth, represented healing, fertility, and creation in Sumerian culture. His intelligent magic often included trickery to benefit the good of the human race.

Son of a sky god, Enki was thought to reign over the Earth and high heavens. As a leader of the Anunna gods in Sumeria, it is believed Enki inhabited the Earth nearly 400,000 years ago.

Sumerian King's List

Enki’s Various Names

Enki was known by a variety of names, including Enkig, Ea, Nissiku, and Nudimmud. The names come with a variety of translations, such as “Prince,” “Lord of the Earth,” and “Creator.”

Gift of Fertility & Creation

In Sumerian culture, Enki is heavily connected to the concepts of fertility and creation. This is often represented by water.

Ancient images of Enki show rivers flowing from his masculine shoulders. The rivers depicted are thought to be the Euphrates and Tigris rivers that flow through Mesopotamia and signify his gift of fertility to the land. According to legend, the rivers were formed from his semen, which further supports his ties to the concept of fertility.

In addition, other symbols associated with Enki are the goat and the fish, which also signify fertility or fertileness.

One Sumerian lore depicts Enki as the founder of Eridu, possibly Mesopotamia’s first city, thus establishing the beginning of life on Earth. The spiritual site of Eridu has been compared to the Judeo-Christian concept of the Garden of Eden.

In addition to his contributions to creation, Enki is noted for his divine crafts and arts that represent spirituality. It is said he came to Earth to share knowledge of the afterlife with humans.

Link to the Annunaki

The Anunna or Anunnaki were beings of higher consciousness and advanced technology. According to legend, these gods or extraterrestrials came to Earth in search of gold. In one Babylonian story, the elder gods enjoyed a leisurely life while the younger gods worked away mining gold.

The intelligent yet mischievous Enki suggested the gods create other beings to mine the gold for them. The Annunaki were thought to be clone masters who sought to clone lesser beings, such as the human race, to do their work. Control of human beings is still thought to be happening under Annunaki gods today.

Although Enki contributed to the concept of cloning, which could be considered manipulation of the human race, he was well-intended and provided humans with information on how to restore balance to the Earth after devastating droughts and famine. Enki was drawn to forgiveness, compassion, and humanity.

Enki Family Lineage

Enki had a substantial cosmic family line. His immediate family included a father figure, mother, brother, wife, and four sons. An additional eight children were born later, as mentioned in a folk tale. The names and relations of Enki’s family members vary throughout ancient texts.

Sumerian mythology referred to Enki’s father as Anu, meaning “sky god,” while Babylonian text uses the name Apsu, defined as “primordial father.” Enki’s mother, Nammu, was a goddess from the highest heavens. She was depicted as the female force who gave birth to the heavens and the Earth.

Enki was the twin of Adad, a god of weather and storms. Enki had another brother Enlin, who was thought to be an adversary, often causing trouble for Enki to creatively repair.

Enki later married the goddess Ninhursag, who is also known by the names Ninmah, Damgalnuna, and Damkina. Together they had four sons: Asarluhi, god of magical knowledge; Enbhlulu, god of dikes and canals; Adapa, human sage; and Marduk, god of magical knowledge.

In the tale Enki and Ninhursag, it is said Enki and his wife had eight more children in an effort to cure Enki after he became seriously ill. The eight offspring with healing powers included:

  • Abu – god of plants and growth
  • Nintulla – god of precious metals
  • Ninsitu – goddess of healing
  • Ninkasi – goddess of beer
  • Nanshe – goddess of divination, dream interpretation, social justice, and fertility
  • Azimua – goddess of healing
  • Emshag – god of fertility
  • Ninti – goddess and giver of life

Power and Humanity

Enki was a very powerful god and had the assistance of mystical beings at his service. Legends describe an assortment of creatures such as mermaids, giants, and even demons that aided Enki in his earthly endeavors. Although he could call upon both destructive and caring existences, Enki favored humanity and social justice. He was known for his intelligence, wisdom, and gift for divine arts and crafts. Enki’s knowledge of rituals included exorcism as well as healing prayers and chants.

An important figure in mythological history, Enki remains one of the greatest Sumerian legends and one of the most complex Sumerian gods. As such, one can spend a significant amount of time delving into the history and mystery of Enki. Continue to explore this fascinating mythical being on your own, and enjoy the journey.



Olmec Colossal Heads: What Are They?

Olmec Colossal Heads: What Are They?

Many ancient civilizations left behind intrigue even archaeologists still puzzle over today. In South America alone, we see cases of anomalous disappearances and unexplained history such as the Incas’ abandoned citadel, Machu Picchu, and the mysterious Mayans’ disappearance, which continue providing fodder for questions about what really happened to these societies.

When it comes to the Olmec people, one giant factor continues to be debated: their colossal heads.

Not of the people themselves, but the 8-ton sculptures of heads they buried underground. The Olmec heads have become yet another famous and mysterious element of ancient cultures we just haven’t solved yet.

Olmec People and Civilization

The Olmec people lived in Southeastern Mexico between 1,500 and 400 B.C., in the lowlands of what is today Tabasco and Veracruz. They are credited with being the first civilization to develop in Mesoamerica, with the Olmec heartland being one of the six cradles of civilization.

Olmecs were the first inhabitants of the Americas to settle in towns and cities with monumental architecture. Evidence has also been found for Olmec hieroglyphs around 650 B.C., as well as scripts on roller stamps and stone artifacts. The fine Olmec artwork survived in several ways, including figurines, sculptures, and of course, the colossal heads.

While the Olmecs seem to have been well-established tradesmen with routes, the civilization vanished around 300 B.C. , although its influence is obvious in the Mayan and Aztec civilizations that followed.

Olmec Colossal Heads

The Olmec colossal heads are aptly named — of the 17 uncovered in the region, the average weight is around 8 tons, standing three meters tall and four and a half meters circumference. Perhaps more than any other aspect of the Olmec heads, their size is cause for a great deal of analysis and speculation.

The heads were carved from a single basalt boulder retrieved from Cerro Cintepec in the Tuxtla Mountains. After their creation, the heads were then transported 100 kilometers to their final destination where they were buried. Most of the heads are wearing a protective helmet, which was worn by the Olmec during battle and the Mesoamerican ballgame, and it is likely they were originally painted with bright colors.

While the heads have been dated to either the Early Preclassic period (1500–1000 BC) and the Middle Preclassic (1000–400 BC) period, it is difficult to say for sure, given that many were removed from their prior contexts before archaeological excavation.

Read Article

More In Ancient Origins

Our unique blend of yoga, meditation, personal transformation, and alternative healing content is designed for those seeking to not just enhance their physical, spiritual, and intellectual capabilities, but to fuse them in the knowledge that the whole is always greater than the sum of its parts.


Use the same account and membership for TV, desktop, and all mobile devices. Plus you can download videos to your device to watch offline later.

Desktop, laptop, tablet, phone devices with Gaia content on screens

Discover what Gaia has to offer.

Testing message will be here