FDA Gives Psilocybin Clinical Studies Breakthrough Therapy Status
The FDA recognized psilocybin, the psychoactive compound in magic mushrooms, with “Breakthrough Therapy” designation for clinical trials studying its use for treatment-resistant depression by a company called Compass Pathways. The group plans to treat patients in Europe and North America over the next year in placebo-controlled studies to determine proper dosage and treatment methods.
Since hallucinogenic drugs were given Schedule I designation in 1966, psilocin and psilocybin have been villainized by the media and politicians who claim it has a high potential for abuse and no medical application. But recent studies from esteemed research institutions, including Johns Hopkins and London’s Imperial College, have helped ease misconceptions and stigma surrounding the drug, and now government regulatory bodies are seeing its potential.
Compass Pathways, a life sciences company founded in 2016 whose focus is to “accelerate patient access to evidence-based innovation in mental health,” specifically through research with psilocybin, was given the go-ahead by the FDA back in August, but the recent designation was an unexpected acknowledgment, according to some of those involved in its research.
According to the FDA, “Breakthrough Therapy” means it reviewed the findings of researchers it granted use of the drug to and viewed their results as:
“Preliminary clinical evidence indicates that the drug may demonstrate substantial improvement over existing therapies on one or more clinically significant endpoints, such as substantial treatment effects observed early in clinical development.”
Once this designation is given, the FDA expedites the development and review of the drug, hopefully allowing medical professionals to soon begin implementing it as a legal, viable treatment and eventually change the scheduling of the drug.
Dr. Roland Griffiths, one of the foremost researchers in government-sanctioned studies of hallucinogenic drugs, told Inverse he’s hopeful the regulatory approval will change, though he doesn’t envision it becoming available from a pharmacy anytime soon, if ever.
Griffiths and his colleagues have mostly advocated for its use in controlled settings with guided sessions from a trained psychologist. He’s also stated he believes it can be a dangerous drug when taken by those with certain pre-existing mental illnesses, notably schizophrenia.
But now that studies have shown psilocybin to act as a “reset mechanism” in the brain for those suffering from severe forms of depression, this latest recognition from the FDA may allow psilocybin treatment to become available for those desperately needing it. This breakthrough may also pave the way for FDA trials with other psychedelic substances, such as LSD, currently studied by Griffiths and others in his field.
For more on Dr. Roland Griffith’s and other cutting edge work studying clinical treatments with psychedelic substances, check out this episode of Psychedelica:
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Psychedelic Research Finds Ego Exists in The Default Mode Network
Researchers studying psychedelics have found themselves in the midst of a scientific renaissance as taboos fade and their work yields profound results. One possibly groundbreaking discovery could be a brain mechanism that seems to be responsible for our ego; the Default Mode Network (DMN). While implications of the DMN’s role during mystical experiences have been inferred in the past, new insights into its precise mechanism explain much more.
Michael Pollan’s latest book titled How to Change Your Mind, in which he, an admittedly skeptical atheist, took a subjective journalistic approach to psychedelic substances by consuming the DMT-containing ayahuasca, magic mushrooms, and LSD. Pollan broke down many misconceptions and fallacies modern society created to instill a fear of substances once believed to have a high potential for abuse and no medical applications.
As it turns out, psychedelic research has revealed a new understanding of normal brain behavior. And one of the most fascinating discoveries shows that the behavior of the DMN during the psychedelic experience might show us how we fall into states of depression, addiction, and unimaginative thought.
So what exactly is the DMN?