Time Slice Theory: Is Consciousness as Fluid as We Think It Is?

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Our brains have all sorts of shortcuts to help us experience reality more efficiently. For example, you’ve probably seen one of those tests circulating the internet with a sentence full of mispselled wrods taht dno’t raelly inhbit yuor raeding speed, as long as the frist and last lettres in evrey word are unchanged. This phenomenon may be part of a conceptual explanation known as the Time Slice Theory of consciousness, suggesting our minds stitch together a narrative of individual frames, rather than a continuous, live stream.

The paper was published on PLoS-biology by scientists Michael Herzog of the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, and Frank Scharnowski of the University of Zurich in Switzerland. Their theory says our brains process reality in individual moments, or what they call percepts, arising in 400 millisecond intervals. These percepts are then stitched together and rendered as a continuously flowing sequence of reality that makes sense to us – much like a movie shot in high definition.

But instead of watching the movie and making judgements as we observe them, our unconscious mind reviews individual images, processes them in an abstract order, and makes subjective judgements based on heuristics from past experience. It then translates those judgements into an apparently fluid narrative, allowing you to efficiently process reality.

Time Slice Theory of Consciousness & Perception

Time slice theory says we only process reality after 400 millisecond intervals, and that there is minimal to no conscious observation between those frames; our brains only collect sensory information at discrete time-points. It is also within this period that our minds frantically work to make sense of it all.

It’s mind-boggling to think our unconscious can work so quickly, but our brains are fascinatingly powerful processors. It’s believed the mind calculates roughly 1014-1016 processes per second, or somewhere between 1 and 100 quadrillion calculations per second. The average computer functions at about half that speed.

So, what exactly happens during that unconscious judgement phase? According to Time Slice Theory, the brain processes specific features of objects, such as color and shape, quasi-consciously or unconsciously with high resolution. Within this moment there is no sense of linear time, in fact, changes in duration or even color aren’t processed. It then draws the necessary connections and stitches them together to pass off to the conscious stage.

Sometimes this period happens instantaneously and other times it takes longer, depending on the complexity of the information being fed to it. Occasionally, this leads to reactions based on false judgements, such as in fight-or-flight instances, but these instincts are naturally made to surpass the logical decision-making process, usually for survival reasons.

For instance, if someone jumps out of a closet and scares you, your unconscious perception recognizes an ostensible threat of unexpected, encroaching movement, in turn telling you to move or attack the stimulus without logical consideration.

Schizophrenics often report a slowed integration process in which the window of logical deduction takes longer and their stream of perception is fragmented.

This seems to parallel Robin Carhart-Harris’ entropic brain hypothesis regarding the Default Mode Network, the region of the brain believed to be responsible for the ego. His theory says that during a psychedelic, creative, or psychotic experience the mind sifts through more possible outcomes than it normally would, drawing from a number of seemingly incorrect conclusions to make sense of what it’s observing; with psychedelics this is what results in visual hallucinations.

Our brains can also draw false conclusions about reality while being completely aware of them. One such instance is known as the Cutaneous Rabbit Illusion; a physical deception in which a syncopated tapping of the wrist and elbow tricks the mind into feeling as if a tiny, invisible rabbit is hopping up the arm. This illusion happens because the mind infers the sensation in between the two areas of stimulation.

Listen to Alan Watts discuss our confusing perception of time:

Alan Watts: Time

Similar Buddhist Theory of Consciousness

In the third century BC, the Abhidharma Buddhist School first recorded the concept of our brain’s discrete perception of reality. Their scripture refers to the threshold between conscious and unconscious awareness as the “Mind-door,” where we internalize information received through our sensory faculties.

The Mind-door characterizes the mind as the creator of subjective experience which forms the basis of memory and thought, and subsequently the micro-judgements that form the mind’s narrative. They considered the Mind-door to be our sixth sense, transcending time and making purely conceptual judgements.

Abhidharma Buddhists believed when an image reached this threshold, the mind would switch from inactive mode to any of the five-sense processes, based on whichever faculty was appropriate.

These discrete moments were referred to as dharmas – different from the teachings of the Buddha known as the dharma – used to describe experience encountered through the senses. But the dharmas weren’t simply objective experience, rather they are the product of “rapid consciousness that arise and cease in sequential streams, each having its own object, and that interact with the five externally directed sensory modalities of cognitive awareness.”

These dharmas are also described as “psycho-physical events with diverse capacities by means of which the mind unites and assimilates a particular perception, especially one newly presented, to a larger set of ideas already possessed, thus comprehending and conceptualizing it.” Sounds a lot like the Time Slice dynamic.

But Scharnowski and Herzog admit that their theory is purely conceptual and that the argument between a stream of consciousness theory and Time Slice theory remains unsettled. And while theirs is an interesting thought experiment into the way our brain processes consciousness, it doesn’t necessarily do much to answer the hard problem of consciousness itself – that is, what is consciousness?

The answer to that question remains to be understood if it can be understood in this realm at all. For more hints to help you answer such a primordial, existential question watch the documentary PHI: The Evolution of Consciousness:

PHI: The Evolution of Consciousness

Did You Psychically Inherit Society's Learned Behavior?

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The scientific community is often very rigid in its process and not always open to radical ideas. Rightfully so, that is the nature of science – strict scrutiny and skepticism. But what if it is limiting itself in this approach, in the sense that it has taken on some of the same parochial propensities of religion? Science is supposedly the antithesis of religion and meant to question everything with the goal of new discovery. While it is necessary to maintain skepticism to prevent charlatans from diluting the scientific process, there should be a certain level of tolerance for new ideas.

Rupert Sheldrake is one of those scientists that his community has largely shunned as a heretic. Despite studying at Harvard and graduating from Cambridge with a Ph.D. in biochemistry, the scientific community has dismissed his radical ideas as nonsensical and blasphemous. Sheldrake admittedly started his career in science as an atheist, but eventually had an epiphany about our consciousness that changed his outlook.

Sheldrake has proposed an idea he calls, morphic resonance. Essentially, the idea is that there is a collective consciousness within species that can impact disparate groups of organisms without them having to come into contact with each other. A sort of telepathic connectedness that can influence behavior and can be passed down through immediate generations.

Lamarckian Inheritance

The idea of learned behavior being inherited, or Lamarckian Inheritance, has been shown to be a pretty promising theory, if not proven. Although unsurprisingly, the scientific community doesn’t all agree on this. Regardless, this idea is fundamental in Sheldrake’s theory.

The evidence comes from a study in the 1920s, where rats were tested by being placed in a water maze they had to escape from. The rats were electrically shocked when they chose one of two exits deemed to be the wrong exit. They eventually learned which exit was the correct one over a trial of several hundred tests. As they got better, their offspring were tested, and immediately showed quicker rates of improvement compared to their parents.

This was evidence of Lamarckian Inheritance, the learned behavior of the parent rat was passed on to their progeny. What was more astonishing, according to Sheldrake, was that when these experiments were conducted in labs in other countries and on the other side of the world, rats that had no contact with the original study, essentially picked up where the improved rats left off.

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